Recession Proof Devotion By Valentina Khan

This  post is written in conjunction with the Feminist Ethics Course Dialogue project sponsored by Claremont School of Theology in the Claremont Lincoln University Consortium,  Claremont Graduate University, and directed by Grace Yia-Hei Kao.

Valentina Khan is a first year Master of Muslim Leadership Context student at the Claremont School of Theology.  She is a co-founder of I Am Jerusalem, an interfaith organization which promotes friendship, understanding, and striving for the “greater purpose” by dedicating time to community service and social justice. Born and raised in Southern California, to Iranian mother, and Indian father, Valentina has a diverse background that helps her identify as a “citizen of the world”. Valentina hopes to mediate conflicts between intra-religious and inter-religious groups and cultures, via conflict resolution, as well as promote the peace she knows can exist between people if they just put in the effort. Valentina is a yoga teacher and the creator of Enerji barre, where she enjoys empowering her students to love their bodies, appreciate their health and live in the moment!

“I Am Jerusalem, that’s it, we got it, I Am Jerusalem! You are Jerusalem! We are all Jerusalem!” My best friend Sarah and I exclaimed on our yoga mats one day after a 90 minute intensive Vinyasa flow. Sarah was raised as a Christian, and I as a Muslim. It was when we were in the 7th grade when she asked me the heavy question, “so do Muslims believe in Jesus?” This question was the common theme in my life, growing up in suburban Orange County and surrounded predominately by white, Anglo-Saxon, Protestants. As a child, and still today, I can look up and down any major street in my town and find multitudes of churches: Trinity Presbyterian, a progressive church, First Church of Christ, Christian Science, Lutheran, Episcopalian, Unitarian, Methodist, and Catholic, all within a 5 mile radius. I remember we had to drive about 25 minutes to get to Sunday School at the local Mosque, and I wished so much to just go with my Christian friends down the street, after all God was the same…right?

I learned he was. I learned that the God of the Muslims, was the same God of the Jews and Christians, and of all humanity. I grew up learning that Allah, God, created all of the universe, and all humanity equally. The stories of Adam, Abraham, Noah, Moses, Jesus, Mohammad were common stories that were often repeated throughout my adolescence into my adulthood. Which is why when Sarah asked me, my 7th grade spiritual soul was more than confident to answer: “Yes! We do! He was born to Virgin Mary, and he performed all kinds of miracles!” And that was enough for her at that time, and for me.

Moving forward to 2006, sitting on our yoga mats no longer as kids, and just finishing our Om Shanti, Shanti, Shanti’s, again the topic of religion came up. This time it was in the form of we are so similar, we worship God, we believe in peace and social justice, we embrace all types of cultures and peoples, let’s make a shirt with some sort of message. Excited at the thought, we narrowed it down, and thought let’s just speak to Abrahamic faiths (for right now) because the average Abrahamic layperson does not seem to truly know each-other.

We hypothesized that if they knew, they would be at peace and not have the inclinations to fear, have animosity, and barriers that many of them do (“them” meaning, various peoples of the three faiths). So, what seemed like nano-seconds, Jerusalem came to mind, and I exclaimed “I Am Jerusalem!” Sarah embraced it immediately, and that was the birth of our non-profit today.

Excited to embark on this new journey, we knew it wouldn’t go very far,unless we incorporated our Jewish history too. It was 2 years later in 2008, our Jewish sister, Sande joined the picture and we were complete. So now we had the idea. We had the image. We had the message, and a believer from each faith background. What was left was to introduce it to the world, in particular the world-wide web. Sarah was able to put together a basic WordPress site, which we are still using today.

See I am Jerusalem.

Then last week Sarah found a hopeful IT guy, so we thought. They met and discussed the budget, which he agreed to, and the style and theme of the site. She provided the image, the message, and he apparently was fine with everything, until she received an email from him afterwards. In the email he wrote: “Friendship, unity, and peace are essential for healthy global relations. I applaud your efforts toward peace and reconciliation, as well as creating a more harmonious world. However, there is an important question left unanswered in regards to focusing on our common values: Who is Jesus Christ? He is either a liar, lunatic, or God’s Son.” When she shared this with me, I was saddened and I knew he wasn’t alone in his thinking.

The irony of this whole thing was just the day before (at yoga again), Sarah and I were talking about a holiday boutique she went to, and I asked if I Am Jerusalem could bring shirts for the next time. She said, “sadly, no, because this particular holiday boutique serves Christian purposes, and I Am Jerusalem is not a good fit”. I asked her why, and her response was, “well many conservatives, hold the “Jesus: Lord, liar or lunatic” view, and that’s just how it goes”. I asked what about all the themes of peace and love in the bible, she said, “yes, I know, but unfortunately, others don’t focus on that as much as on evangelizing”. We ended it there.

The next day she met with the IT guy, and he confirmed her generalization of conservative beliefs right in his email when he declined to work with us. This encounter was coincidental but was also a loud and clear message to me, our work needs also to focus on creating higher levels of understanding, one encounter at a time. My eagerness to reach out to people on the world-wide web instantly became secondary, when a local IT guy who gets coffee at the same place we do harbors those thoughts. I Am Jerusalem needs to be more hometown, than world wide in these initial phases.

What boggled me most was this was a professional relationship. We were not soliciting him to join I Am Jerusalem. I was more amazed at his stance on a theological level which impeded on a potential job for him. As a matter of fact, I admired his candidness and his staunch devotion. What he believes in is so profound and the only way, he could not see past it for a side job helping us with a website. In his job decline email he even put in the effort to quote various verses from the bible, one in particular: In the book of John, Jesus said:

“I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father

except through me.”

Just for my own research, I looked up themes of love in the bible and found the following verses:

Romans 13:8  “Owe no one anything, except to love each other, for the one who loves another has fulfilled the law.

Ephesians 4:2 “with all humility and gentleness, with patience, bearing with one another in love,”

1 John 4:7  “Beloved, let us love one another, for love is from God, and whoever loves has been born of God and knows God.”

I am not inviting a theological debate over interpretation,because even in my own faith there are divergences and various readings of any particular verse from the Qur’an. I understand even though there are themes of love in the Bible it must be read in context. I am also an outsider of the Christian faith looking in. Ultimately, this situation was one that was supposed to stay in the professional realm: Non-profit organization seeking web designer, and it turned into a theological conflict for him in particular. Perhaps these are just signals from above, that we have our work ahead of us, and it truly starts with just one person at a time.


Categories: Feminist Ethics Course Dialogue, Islam, Judaism

Tags: , , , , ,

22 replies

  1. This is a powerful story and it includes elements that make me smile and elements that sadden me. As I mentioned to you over e-mail, I am familiar with the “Lord, liar, or lunatic” apologetical refrain because of my own evangelical Christian background and certainly as a young teenager, I had no idea that those options precluded what many Muslims believe about Jesus. I am excited about what I am Jerusalem stands for and for all that it will do in the future. I’m glad you’re here studying with us at Claremont!


  2. One of the most interesting theological moments when I was in high school occured when I had a conversation with a boy who was a foreign exchange student from Turkey. We were both taking a world literature class, and one morning before class, I asked him about his Muslim faith. I can’t recall the question exactly, but I was stunned by the answer: “We believe that Jesus was a great prophet like Mohammad, so why doesn’t Christianity see Mohammad as a great prophet too, since we honor Jesus.” I was dumbfounded by this answer, and in that rare high school moment, I actually was free of Christian indoctrination and really thought about that.

    Now, of course, I’ve moved so far beyond that, but I believe it is moments like this that are so needed in public schools everywhere, and I was lucky to have attended a public school with foreign exchange students in a midwestern city in the 70s.


  3. What a beautiful vision you have! Keep doing your part to help people see beyond their differences to embrace our common humanity and the higher essence of our faith traditions where we agree more than we disagree. ps that Jesus would never have used that annoying “lord, liar, lunatic” phrase…


  4. Hi Valentina. Thanks so much for this story — it is sad and hopeful at once. I appreciate your idea and went to your website (evidently someone finally built it for you). I love I Am Jerusalem’s motto. It is poetic and beautiful. This is the first time I’ve heard the Lord, Liar, Lunatic argument. But I could dwell in the Johannine “love” writings for hours :) Thanks for reminding me and good luck in your venture. You have many talents to bring to bear along with your sisters in teaching the world about our shared roots. I look forward to hearing more.


  5. Valentina, thank you for writing up the story of your vision for your organization and this challenge that you recently encountered. As I read your post, I was struck by the problem of black/white, either/or thinking, and the way this thinking was preventing this IT person from embracing the wider vision of your movement.

    As someone who belongs to a religion that often proclaims its access to exclusive truth and salvation, I am familiar with black/white thinking. It seems to me like there must be a better way forward — one that leaves room for conviction but that also encourages respect for others’ traditions, inter-faith dialogue, appreciation for unique religious insights, and common ground to work together for a more peaceful future.


  6. Valentina,

    Thank you for sharing this beautiful reflection. I love the name of your non-profit “I am Jerusalem-” even in the name alone, it challenges the stereotypes that get repeated again and again about the different Abrahamic religions – the media (and others) often use “Jerusalem” to symbolize pure violence (and how supposedly the Abrahamic religions can never get along), while the true reality is that there is a great deal of diversity in the Abrahamic traditions (good and bad). Your story highlights this well, I think, by revealing the multiplicity that you see in Christianity – you may be an “outsider,” but if anything that status might have helped you to see this diversity!

    Growing up as a Buddhist in Idaho, I heard the “liar, lunatic or God’s son,” line many, many times. In fact, sadly, I came to prefer the “liar, lunatic, God’s son” evangelicals to other encounters with Christianity as a child. At least then I could retort: “or perhaps he was just misunderstood.” More often then not, I was simply mocked, teased and attacked (by Christians) for my religious background. It was only later that I came to discover that there is a great deal of diversity in Christianity, and a lot of good to go with the bad, like the passages about love (and the people that take them to heart) that you mentioned above. Still, despite this knowledge (and even now being a Christian and a Buddhist), I often find myself sensitive (even at a progressive place like CLU) to Christian blindness and/or persecution; many of my scars remain. And for that reason, I want to thank you. There is much healing to be done in this world – I believe religion can play a crucial role in this – and it is very clear from your post that you and your organization will take a part in that.

    Along those lines, since you mentioned it briefly, I was curious if you had any thoughts about how Abrahamic interreligious encounters (and groups) can expand beyond their Abrahamic beginnings (I recognize the value, of course, in needing to start somewhere). New problems seem to emerge in such an expansion; often times the common ground that can be found between the Abrahamic traditions is not common to other religions. For instance, I often hear at CLU (by students, professors and administrators) that the Abrahamic religions can all find common ground in being against “idols,” since God is supposed to be beyond all objects, and yet such anti-idol rhetoric has (and still is) often used against Buddhists, Hindus, Wiccans and others. These CLU folks think they are being inclusive, but they have actually repeated a long history of violent exclusion. I have struggled a lot with this difficult issue; do you have any reflections or ideas on how problems like these might be overcome?


    • Dear Drew,

      Thank you very much for your thoughtful response. As a side night, my Buddhist friend who is involved in many interfaith organizations with me and our Jewish friend, is very active and always trying to help the Abrahamic faiths toward reconciliation. When the 3 of us are together we call ourselves the: ‘JuBuMu’ crew. It’s just remarkable to embark on great initiatives and too see true friendships spawn.

      As a matter of fact, the help of the Buddhists has been pivotal for the work of I Am Jerusalem. Of all the faith groups out there, I have seen the most excitement and interest from the Buddhists (Shinnyo-en) in particular, who have wanted to help and be a part of the reconciliation and bridge building of the Abrahamic faiths. It has been awe-inspiring to work with a faith group do far removed from the Abrahamic traditions.

      You raise so many interesting questions. Questions I too have wondered. In particular, what of the ancient faiths before the Abrahamic ones? Hinduism, Buddhism, Confuscionism? I’ve always wondered, how do I, a person who believes that God created all equally to worship him according to how they choose to worship him, reconcile with our difference in how we believe (or not believe) in God, pray, and even our rituals and symbols.

      My questions are still leading me toward in depth research of Pre-Islamic Arabia. So my caveat is that I am just replying to your comment to continue the dialogue, but I definitely do not have the answers, and am not comfortable entirely with revealing my research thus far. However, what I can share, in all honesty and sincerity is my opinion, that I think (this is a premise) that our form of prayer: bowing, prostrating our heads to the floor, praying towards Mecca, are likely to have been inspired from the great religions before us.

      The Pre-Islamic Arabs used to worship many dieties, and even believed in the Supreme Diety: Allah. Some anti-Islamic scholars say that this Pre-Islamic Allah was a moon God, hence the crescent and star symbol that is used modern day to represent Islam is still prevalent. Many Islamic scholars claim that Allah was never a moon God but a God that was revealed to the Jews and the Christians which they claim can be proven in the respective scriptures.

      Whichever perspective one has, the fact is that Islam came approximately 600 years after Christ to Pagan Arabs who diverted from the path of monotheism. They set up idols in and around the Kabbah in Mecca and prayed to various dieties believing that these deities could be intercessors to the supreme Diety Allah. One of the main things Islam came to establish, was the Oneness if God, and for all the idols to be removed and abolished from their worship.

      I find it interesting on many levels: Pre-Islamic Arabs believing in various deities that can be prayed to as intercessors to a supreme diety


      • This type of worship may have been inspired by the Hindus who came many years before them.

        The more I read and research, my internal peace resides in knowing that there is a Supreme Being, one that has been revealed throughout history to different civilizations in various forms for the sake of guiding people towards a moral and right path, providing guidelines to this temporary life. I find the ancient religions fascinating and I’m sure through more investigation and in depth research I can discover more correlations and cross over practices and beliefs.

        Thank you Drew.


      • *Please forgive any spelling or grammatical errors in my reply*


      • As a quick tip for Interfaith dialogue, unless a group self-identifies as “pagan,” use of the term can be problematic. Terms like “pre-Islamic” or “non-Muslim” can serve the function without the potential for unintentional offense. I am so glad that are taking up the challenge to share your large heart with as many people as you can- so exciting!


  7. Thanks for your work Valentina and what a beautiful logo.

    And thanks Drew for bringing up the point that encouraging tolerance between the three “Abrahamic” (even this word implies patriarchy) religions is a starting point, but hopefully not an ending point.

    In fact trees have roots in the earth, not in any specific tradition. There is an unitended irony in the logo when the symbol of mother earth, the sacred tree, is imaged as arising from and being baptized with symbols of Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.

    These are the very traditions that as Drew says violently excluded worship of the Goddess and Mother Earth “on every high hill and under every green tree.”

    And I too, like Drew, feel violated and feel the earth being violated when feminists and other Christians use the word idolatry as a code word for immorality. Moreover, Marcia Falk has argued even on their own terms, the “Abrahamic” traditions did not do away with the “idolarty” inherent in verbal images of God as male.

    Difficult issues indeed.


  8. Thank you for writing this, Valentina. When you told me what this man said the other day, I replied you that you could either engage him to let him see another side of religion he may not have been exposed to, or you could let it go, if only because of your very busy schedule. Yet, I suspect that you will encounter Christians espousing exclusivist claims again in the future.
    Biblical verses often mentioned are: There is no other name by which persons can be saved (Acts 4:12), no one comes to the Father except through him (John 14:6), just as all died in one man, Adam, so all will be brought to life in one man, Christ (1 Corinthians 15:21-22), and Jesus is the one mediator between God and humanity (1 Timothy 2:5).
    Some Christians have interpreted these in ways that are compatible with pluralism and even universalism, but when you bump into the more common view, trying to formulate a response to those who would marshal the “Liar, Lunatic, or Lord” argument is good practice at working through how to present what you believe in the face of strikingly different beliefs.
    When two people have divergent views, sometimes we can move on for the sake of unity, but the hard questions will eventually rear their head again. Thankfully, I have seen how patient and gracious you can be in our Qur’an class with Dr. Mavani, and I look forward to hearing more of your thoughts soon!

    Jonathan Oskins
    Contributing Scholar, State of Formation
    Communications Intern, North American Interfaith Network (NAINews)
    Board Member, Academy of Judaic, Christian and Islamic Studies
    M.A. Interreligious Studies, in progress, Claremont School of Theology/Claremont Lincoln University


  9. Valentina, Thank-you for sharing. I applaud your courage to tackle such an important issue. Although I lived in places very different from Orange County, I’ve heard rhetoric like this in all places I’ve lived, although sometimes applied to other religious prophets. I agree that we need to work toward educating to reduce fear. I think that sometimes we forget how many coffee conversations need to be had. I also agree with others before me that this issue spans across all religious traditions. You describe the incredible hope and the inevitable disappointments that come with religious work. I love that you’ve taken initiative to start I am Jerusalem. Good luck!


  10. Valentina – What a lovely blog post! It seems to me that I Am Jerusalem could be a very helpful entry point for people who have not had much experience thinking/engaging interreligiously to begin thinking about some of these ideas in very non-threatening, engaging and inviting ways (also aesthetically pleasing: nice logo!).I am also quite familiar with the Liar/Lunatic/Lord triad from my own childhood growing up in Indiana, where business and religion also often got melded in the ways that you are describing above, as well. It is a long and sometimes scary process to realize that things that we have held as true for ourselves don’t have to be inherently threatened by someone else’s truth. I recognize that often we Christians don’t have to deconstruct these ideas as clearly throughout our childhood because there seems to be a sort of dominant acceptance of the ways that we think, and evangelism has been a common theme for our churchs, right along the peace, love and justice. It seems in many ways that interpersonal relationships are the clearest ways to open up spaces for conversation. I hope that your own non-profit can continue to be a valuable conversation starter and witness to healthy ways to form interreligious friendships!


  11. Valentina,

    It is nice to read about the good work you and your friends are doing regarding inter-religious commitments. I am very sympathetic to projects that seek to increase mutual understanding and that highlight commonalities that can lead to future positive interactions.

    I do, however, have one reservation about your project – a concern that can easily be extended to many inter-religious and pluralist agendas (CST/CLU, for example). What about those who are not Jerusalem? While I appreciate your optimism that this can eventually go beyond the Abrahamic faiths, have you considered the possibility that by relying on religiously derived commonalities (such as Jesus or Jerusalem) your project may (unintentionally) function to exclude other groups? Can I, being non-religious, find a place in your organization? If so, how might incorporating someone like me affect your project?

    I ask these questions with utmost sincerity; I struggle deeply to find a place for my people – good, moral, concerned people of the world who happen to be non-religious – in many of the recent trends that rely on broad religious categories as positively inclusive of all people worth incorporating.


    • Dear Jeff,

      Thank you for your thoughtful response. I appreciate your questions, and I think I can best answer by first sharing with you a messes regarding ‘I Am Jerusalem’ from my Buddhist friend. The prompt was, ‘what does I Am Jerusalem’ mean to you, if anything at all?’ Her answer was the following:

      I believe that the steps IAJ takes to foster the relationships between the Abrahamic traditions are truly important. I don’t feel excluded from the project at all. Reconciliation, unity and harmony sre very challenging to achieve even among family members. I realize that progress in this arena must be made in steps and I support the steps you are taking. In my tradition of Buddhism we believe that we spread the circle of harmony and unity beginning with our immediate circle and then work to spread it outward like ripples of water. Perhaps in the case of IAJ you are making effort to spread harmony and build unity from your own immediate circle (the Abrahamic traditions). At least that is how I see it, and so I feel compelled to support you and IAJ in your mission. We are all interconnected and I believe in the efforts of my brothers and sisters all over the world to heal wounds from the past and strengthen understanding through positive methods. IAJ uses things such as t-shirts to share its message but IAJ is not just about sharing a message but living its message.

      Her view could be from the vantage point of knowing the three IAJ founders personally, so I can understand if it is not totally unbiased. However, I did ask her to be as truthful and candid as possible. Although I Am Jerusalem is primarily focused on Abrahamic reconciliation, the message as my friend says is like ‘ripples in the water’. If there are people who don’t have a religious affiliation, and want to do community work and strive for social justice, IAJ is a good option. There is no prostelytizing. We aren’t promoting the theological messages of each faith as much as we are promoting that people look beyond the differences and see that harmony can exist if there is effort made to truly get to know one another. Either as Abrahamic believers or not.

      I Am Jerusalem is a spring board for us. Hopefully as we grow we can also say one day, ‘I Am Interfaith’.

      Thank you again for your response.


  12. Valentina, thank you for your post and for your concerted efforts to encourage humanity’s flourishing in interfaith mutuality! Your post and the responses took me back to my childhood experiences growing up in New York City, where I experienced many different religious traditions, often within the same day. I was born and raised in the Bronx, five minutes’ drive from Manhattan (“Just over the bridge” as we’d say to give directions to people up the West Side Highway), and I lived in a mainly Jewish community. I was the only Christmas tree on the block. :) And back then, I barely noticed. Only in reflection later on did I realize that my community was rather a unique one in America, though not for many New Yorkers. Synagogues graced many corners, Saturdays were filled with people walking to them, I went to more Bar and Bat Mitzvahs than there were weeks in the year, and I knew quite a few Seder prayers by heart having frequented many of our family friends’ Seder dinners. I even found the matzo a few times, necessitating my friend’s uncle to give ME the prize! I’d also go to church and Sunday school and I was confirmed in a Presbyterian church. I attribute my interfaith upbringing to my mother who was born and raised Irish Catholic in Scranton, PA (where interfaith diversity meant Protestant) and at an early age longed for a more expansive understanding of different religions, believing Catholicism could not possibly have all the answers if it wouldn’t let her in to church to worship God because she didn’t have a doily on her head. Anyway, this is all to say, I feel profoundly blessed to have had the interfaith upbringing I had; the only thing I could wish is that it had included more religions, more faiths. Basically, that’s why I’m getting my MA in Religion: to continue the education my mother and New York City started. I find women like yourself, Valentina, as well as all our fellow classmates, inspiring. I have since fallen away from my Christian upbringing, and would not call myself religious. But I think the religion-less, as I sometimes refer to my state, :) certainly have a place within interfaith dialogues like the ones you cultivate with “I Am Jerusalem.” In fact, it is organizations like yours that I can see myself walking into when I can’t see myself walking into a church.


    • Jaji,

      What a great upbringing! I admire so much how Jews and Christians have overcome difference and have built their bridges in friendship (for the most part!) I know just by your posture in class and your in-depth comments, you speak from a place of honesty, respect, and eternal seeking when you refer to your ‘religion-less’. I admire that greatly, and know of many people who share the same sentiments. I Am Jerusalem was created from the inspiration of those around me who were in the same location as you, raised a certain way, but through time realized there was a lot more out there. Rather prescribing to one, why not continue the cycle of learning and understanding to make sense of it all? With that in mind, we try to stay theology neutral, in respect of the very valid differences. But also to share in the mystery and grandeur of ‘The Creator’ and ‘the creation’ and why were we born differently, yet, why are we so similar? We hope as an organization to explore these and most importantly foster true friendships and form alliances so that we may become a community at peace, more familiar with our neighbors.

      I would love to have you involved with us, thank you for exploring your interest. Your support touches my heart. Thank you, Jaji.


  13. Valentina,
    Thank you for your inspiring and educational blog. Your logo inspires reflection and by itself would be a great subject for study in my little church for Advent or for Lent. If we religious are truly monotheists as we self describe, then we need to start the conversation somewhere in the midst of our belief communities about what that entails, don’t we? My little congregation is taking baby steps toward naming how we live what we believe. Sounds feminist! Love and respect for each member of community and for the earth and its intricacies of life is not foreign to the great belief systems of the world. Working out the details is the challange; your group is admirably working toward more and better conversations and actions to meet the challange. I look forward to hearing more.


  14. I can’t believe the IT guy refused to do it! I know that you approached this from an understanding and sympathetic position, but should his professionalism be overshadowed by religious beliefs? I have a hard time accepting that. It’s like the pharmacist who refuses to give women the morning after pill based on his moral position. He’s supposed to be there to provide a service, not to share his personal position on the issue. I would argue that the same should be expected of any professional arrangement. Additionally, what you were attempting to do was foster a sense of peace and commonality–regardless of your position on the whole “lord, liar, lunatic…” issue, you would think that doing work for people with such good intentions would be ideologically sound from this guy’s perspective. His refusal suggest something extreme, an implied understanding of right and wrong, inevitably placing your attempt in the wrong, with his decision of aversion in the right.


    • I spoke to Valentina briefly after the incident, and while I disagree with this man’s stance (I certainly would have taken the job!), the analogy with a doctor is not exact because some wold argue that doctors have an ethical imperative to help patients, whereas IT people can unfortunately be as biased in choosing their clients as they would like. Also, most people of faith have “implied understanding[s] of right and wrong.” That is exactly how I can decide that I consider his action to be “wrong.” Taking an ethical stance is not in of itself “extreme.” What decides if a ethical stance is extreme is which is taken, and intolerant ones such as the one he displayed show an incorrect understanding of right and wrong ethical positions.


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