Carol P. Christ’s Legacy: Was There a “Golden Age” before Patriarchy and War? by Carol P. Christ

Marija Gimbutas coined the term “Old Europe” c.6500-3500 BCE to describe peaceful, sedentary, artistic, matrifocal, matrilineal and probably matrilocal agricultural societies that worshipped the Goddess as the power of birth, death, and regeneration in all of life. Gimbutas argued that Old Europe was overthrown by Indo-European speaking invaders who began to enter Europe from the steppes north of the Black Sea beginning about 4400 BCE.  The Indo-Europeans were patrilineal and patriarchal, mobile and warlike, having domesticated the horse, were not highly artistic and worshiped the shining Gods of the sky reflected in their bronze weapons.

In the fields of classics and archaeology, Gimbutas’s work is often dismissed as nothing more than a fantasy of a “golden age.” In contrast, scholars of Indo-European languages, Gimbutas’s original specialty, are much more likely to accept the general outlines of her hypothesis. The German linguist and cultural scientist Harald Haarmann is one of them.

In Roots of Ancient Greek Civilization: The Influence of Old Europe (2014), Haarmann presents masses of linguistic evidence in support of his “call for a recognition of the achievements of pre-Greek cultures from which the ancient Greeks profited.” (1) He says that the idea that Athens is the “cradle of democracy” is a myth advanced in the Enlightenment and passed on in Western educational systems ever since. In contrast, he argues that the civilization we know as Greek inherited many of its most important components from the “Pelasgians,” the name the Indo-Europeans who became the Greeks gave to the indigenous inhabitants of the land they began to conquer and settle after 3000 BCE.

Haarmann recounts the much-told story of the competition between Athene and Poseidon for the naming of the city. According to one version of the story Athene caused an olive tree to spring up on the rocky outcropping known as the Acropolis and taught the Greeks to cultivate it, while Poseidon produced a horse. The Athenian king chose the gift of Athene and named the city after her. Haarman reads this story as encoding the conflict of cultures between the earlier Old European-Pelasgian culture and the new culture of the Indo-Europeans.

The horse was domesticated by the Indo-Europeans, while the olive was cultivated by the earlier inhabitants of Greece. The name Athene ends in the suffix –n– which is pre-Greek. Haamann argues that the word for olive in the Greek language elaia as well as the word parthenos, young woman, from which the name for Athena’s temple, the Parthenon, derives, must also be understood to be pre-Greek because they have no cognates in other Indo-European languages. In this instance of the conflict between two cultures, the contribution of the earlier Old European-Pelasgian culture is recognized as more valuable.

Though I am not a scholar of Indo-European languages, I can follow the outline of the argument. The Indo-European languages include most of the European languages as well as Persian and Sanskrit. It is hypothesized that the Indo-European homeland was in the steppes north of the Black Sea and that the Indo-Europeans migrated from there to Europe via the Danube and later by other routes to Persia and India. There are many words with common roots across all of the language groups.

When a word is found in one of the languages, but not in the others, it is presumed that the word is pre-Indo-European, deriving from a word used before the Indo-Europeans left their homeland. Haarmann argues, for example, that the word for horse has a common root in Indo-European languages, while many of the words for farm produce and farm implements, such as grain and plow, are different in the different languages. This suggests that the Indo-Europeans brought the word for horse and the horse itself with them, while they adopted local words for grain and plow when they learned agriculture from indigenous farmers.

Further, words ending in –n– plus a vowel such as Athene or Ariadne are not common in Greek or other Indo-European languages, and usually are the names of people or places. Thus, it is assumed that these words are not Indo-European. If all of this is so, then it makes sense that Athene was the name of a pre-Greek Goddess who inhabited the Acropolis long before the Greeks, the God Poseidon, and the horse arrived in the land we call Greece.

Haarmann argues that the Greeks learned many things we now consider “Greek” from the Pelasgians, including: the cultivation of the olive and the production of wine; pottery and metallurgy; seafaring and trade; the names of many Goddesses and Gods and the rituals associated with them; all of the arts linked to the muses including poetry, song, dance, and drama; and finally, the art of “communal self-administration” which is the foundation of democracy.

As his goal is to recover the contributions of pre-Greek culture to the culture we celebrate as “Greek,” Haarmann acknowledges but does not dwell upon the bittersweet nature of the interaction between the two cultures. He concludes his book circumspectly: stating that once we recognize the contributions of Old Europe and the Pelasgians to the culture we call Greek, we will be in a better position to re-evaluate the contributions of the Greeks to European and world history. What he does not say in the conclusion–though this is hinted at in every chapter–is that many of the contributions the Indo-European Greeks made to the marriage of cultures were not positive.

Athene won the competition with Poseidon and became the patron of the city that was given her name. But in the process, she was forced to don the garb of soldiers and to engage in battle, thus sanctifying wars and pillage carried out in her name. In words put into her mouth by Aeschylus, she betrays her mother Metis (the Clever One) and her sex including the Erinyes (Furies) who avenge crimes against mothers, saying that because she had no mother, she would always side with the man in all things. Moreover, Augustine reported that the contest between Athene and Poseidon was decided by a vote in which the women chose Athene; this vote was said to have been the last time women were allowed to vote in the city of Athens and to have ended the custom of matrilineal descent.

Classical Greece was based upon war and pillage, condoned slavery, and excluded women and slaves from participating in the (so-called) Greek “democracy.” Haarmann does not come right out and say that the Pelasgian culture was superior in many ways to the culture of classical Greece. I suspect he recognized that to do so would be to open his work to being dismissed as a fantasy of a golden age. But what if the golden age was the age before patriarchy and war and not fantasy at all? There would be a lot of re-evaluating to do.

Carol P. Christ (1945-2021) was an internationally known feminist and ecofeminist writer, activist, and educator. Her work continues through her non-profit foundation, the Ariadne Institute for the Study of Myth and Ritual.

“In Goddess religion death is not feared, but is understood to be a part of life, followed by birth and renewal.”  — Carol P. Christ 

Categories: Feminism, Feminism and Religion, Feminist Theology, Gender and Power, General, Goddess

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8 replies

  1. “But what if the golden age was the age before patriarchy and war and not fantasy at all?” I so miss seeing posts by Carol and hope there are still plans to collect some of them in book form.


  2. Maybe I am biased in a way I am not aware of but it simply makes ‘common sense’ to me that peaceful cultures existed before patriarchy dominated. The ways of patriarchy are not sustainable as we are living and learning now…. if we turn to nature we see that cooperation is the dominant, NOT competition as the neo Darwinians state with such ridiculous authority. Take forests. They have survived 5 massive extinctions. They communicate above and below ground, share resources, favor their kin and have been around for 400million years. Up until recently humans had to have used cooperation to survive.
    In my mind the “golden age fantasy” is the one we are living now. And eventually all fantasies collapse.


    • I agree with most of the above, especially with the description of the modern age, but I doubt if the matriarchy was free of war. The Tain (pronounced ‘tawn’) describes the matriarch Maeve, Queen of Connaught in the prehistoric era, invading Ulster to seize, not land or slaves but a mighty bull. Her motive was to improve the fertility and genetics of her herd. Her neighbour was willing to lend it for the sake of friendship but Maeve’s messengers messed it up, as men do, drunkenly boasting that they could have seized it, and he refused and threw them out, so she came to get it.

      The matriarchy was organised for family and fertility. War was an occasional need or necessity which interrupted the main business of society which was production, of people, of animals, of crops.

      What the patriarchy brought in was a society organised for war. Why spend months on hard labor plowing, weeding and producing stuff when you could, as a warrior, simply wait for your neighbour to harvest hir produce and then you could invade and seize all of it.

      Today war has become ruinous, the weapons ridiculously expensive and obscenely destructive, so it is no longer profitable as it was in Roman or Norman times. The danger now is of leaders whipping their populations up into a frenzy of patriotism, as is now happening in China and Russia, and being forced by them to launch war, over Ukraine, over Taiwan or whatever.

      Liked by 2 people

  3. Much of Carol P Christ’s, Gimbutas’s and Haarman’s description of the matriarchal Pre-Greek society valuing fertility and female sovereignty rather than the later patriarchal values of the warrior seems plausible. I might shift its end, and the start of the resulting Greek Dark Age to around 1250 BCE, and its duration about six hundred years. I see this deep change in values, the warrior revolution deposing the Earth Goddess Dana/Danu in favour of Olympian Zeus as originating north of Greece and advancing southward and westward over centuries, carried on horseback.

    There is an episode in the Iliad where the Trojan female prophet Cassandra warns about the peril of the horse, the carrier of warriors and war, saying (in Latin translation) the famous phrase ‘Timeo Danaos dona ferentes’ (‘I fear the Greeks bearing gifts’ in English translation). She uses the name of the pre-Hellenic population of Greece out of ancient custom.

    The matriarchal ‘Danaans’ (Danaos, Tuatha De Danann, the Tribe of Dan) came at a much earlier time, inhabiting the land from Crete and Cyprus northward to the Danu-ab, the River of the Earth Goddess. They were displaced later by an invasion of the Dorian Greeks from the vastness of the steppes with their warrior culture and its carrier the horse who drove them southward and westward. Inspired by their Sea-Goddess Aphrodite whose name means ‘Foam-Born’ they migrated southward, were repelled from Egypt by Rameses II the greatest Pharaoh of all, who wrote on his stele ‘I slew the Denyen in their islands’ and after an unsuccessful alliance with Deborah to roll back the patriarchy led by Sisera returned to their ships and departed to seek their destiny in the west.

    Their final matriarchal stronghold, out in the Atlantic Ocean, has left us their account of their struggle with the warrior culture. Queen Maeve of Connaught, assertive, strong-willed and devious, tellingly sought not land but fertility in the form of a mighty bull to improve her herd. This epic, called ‘The Tain’ (pronounced ‘tawn’, rhymes with ‘lawn’ or ‘dawn’) is dated to around 600 BCE. It portrays the contest, loving but insistent, between the two societies, her matriarchy and the patriarchal values of her husband Ailill (pron. Allil). You will find in the first chapter, the Pillow Talk, the argument between them. A loving couple, neither will give way to the other, and they are equal in strength and in wealth. Tellingly, her strength is in her flocks and herds. Her opinion of warriors is low. He continues to disparage her female values and talk up the values of maleness, but in the end he follows her. She is the boss.

    Maeve is opposed by Cuchullain the supreme warrior, the champion of the patriarchal kingdom of Ulster who will kill all who come against him. In the General Post Office (GPO) in Dublin, the site of the Easter sacrifice that sacralised the city and the Pale and made them forever Irish, you will find a bronze sculpture in the lobby depicting Maeve’s victory over the warrior ethos, and Erin’s victory over Empire, a spiritual not a military victory. It shows the goddess Badb (pron. ‘Baive’ rhymes with ‘dive’) in the form of a female raven, sitting on the shoulder of the dying hero who has been defeated by Maeve’s female wits. The message is clear.

    Liked by 2 people

  4. Carol, as always, I enjoy reading your thoughtful posts. Now I’m wondering if you can keep writing…..wherever you are. Ever since i first read Homer, I’ve been wanting the Trojans to win that damn war. What Gimbutas and Haarmann say makes a ton of sense. The world would be soooo much more peaceful and kind if the Greeks had been put in their proper place by history. Sigh. .

    Liked by 1 person

  5. I firmly believe there was a Golden Age. Cultural mythologists, plasma scientists, physicists and linguists within the Electric Universe field have written about this. My forthcoming book discusses this.

    Liked by 1 person


  1. Carol P. Christ’s Legacy: Was There a “Golden Age” before Patriarchy and War? by Carol P. Christ – Glyn Hnutu-healh: History, Alchemy, and Me

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