carol-christStatue_of_Egyptian_Goddess_Hathor_from_Luxur_Museum_EgyptMost archaeologists and visitors to museums assume that when they see a horned bovine, they are faced with the image of the male God or the image of the bull sacrifice.  In the minds of many, these two are one, as we have been taught that the male God who was the consort or son-lover of the Goddess was sacrificed. Yet horned Goddesses are not infrequent in the history of religions and Hindus still revere the sacred cow.  

Cattle have played an important role in human life from the beginning of agriculture.  Cows provide milk which is also turned into butter, cheese, and yogurt.  Most of the young males and some of the females are killed for meat or leather, while a few males are kept to impregnate the females.  Though the “raging bull” is the lens through which most of us think about mature male bovines, I have been told by a friend who raised cattle that in fact bulls are for the most part gentle and even sweet–though of course they are also potentially dangerous.

Before the industrial revolution, there was also a third category of bovines, the castrated males, known as oxen, who were used as “beasts of burden”–to pull plows, litters, and after the invention of the wheel, wheeled vehicles. Many people assume that only bulls have horns. This is not the case.  Recently a friend who was raised on a dairy farm described to me the pain experienced by young female cows when their horns are burned out. So let us think again about the images of the horned bovines found in museums.  Given that cows and oxen were long-term companions of early “man” and early “woman,” why should we assume that all horned bovines are bulls?  One reason is that most of us know very little about farm life.  The other is that archaeologists, and following their lead, art historians, historians of religion, archetypal psychologists, and others have told us that horned bovines represent “the male principle.”  Why has scholarship celebrated the bull as the image of male power and virility, but in most cases has not even asked if the horned bovine might be a cow? In Egypt the Goddess Hathor (pictured above) and other Goddesses were imaged with large horns. In Greek mythology, which is more familiar to European scholars, deities were not usually given animal features.  Still, Homer referred to Hera as “cow-eyed,” a likely memory of the earlier association of Goddesses with cows.  The epithet “cow-eyed” reminds us that the eyes of bovines are big and expressive, a fact which may have encouraged human beings to to understand cows, oxen, and bulls as having intelligence and feelings akin to their own.

Re-examining shrines and finds from Neolithic Catal Huyuk, Dorothy Cameron suggested that “bull’s heads” were intended to symbolize the uterus and their horns the fallopian tubes.  While this is possible, it seems to me more likely that “bull’s” heads are often “cow’s” heads.  The cow herself is a powerful symbol of the life-giving and nurturing powers of the Goddess. Rhytonminoan cowIn the sacred treasury of the Sacred Center* of Knossos, a plaque picturing a cow with long horns nursing a calf was found.  This shows that the Ariadnians** were capable of imagining the horned bovine as both sacred and female.

Despite this, the beautiful carved stone pouring vessel of a bovine head on display in the Heraklion Museum is generally interpreted as a bull’s head.  Moreover, it is frequently added that the blood of the sacrificed bull was poured through the mouth of the pouring vessel.  But if we imagine that the bull can be a cow, we can also imagine that a priestess may have poured milk from the cow’s mouth, as a symbol of the nurturing power of the Goddess.

In the reconstruction of the famous bull-leaping fresco from the Sacred Center of Knossos, male genitalia are prominent.  If the reconstruction is correct, then male bovines were used in bull games.  However, there is no indication that these were “raging bulls.”  Instead, the bull is portrayed with a large, gentle, interested eye that seems to be looking at the viewer.  This suggests to me that the bull was not an antagonist to the bull-leapers, but rather a trained companion in the game, perhaps raised as a kind of “4-H” bull by the girls and boys who tumbled with it in rites welcoming spring. bul leapers Bearing in mind that the Ariadnians** portrayed both male and female bovines in a sacred context, I have closely examined many of the ceramic bovine statues on display in the museums of Crete.  While I have not found any with clearly defined udders, neither do most of them have the full complement of clearly articulated male genitalia.  Some of them may be castrated males or oxen, while others may be non-gendered “generic bovines.”  Given the important roles female and castrated cattle played in the lives of the Ariadnians** who did not have horses or donkeys to aid in farm labor or to bear burdens, it seems likely to me that all 3 categories of bovines would have been honored in their rituals.

While there is evidence that Ariadnians** cooked and ate meat as part of ritual festivals, the only definitive evidence of a bull sacrifice comes from the Aghia Triada sarcophagus which is dated to the Mycenean occupation of the island.  The Aghia Triada sarcophagus can also be indentified as Mycenean from its iconography–including the Mycenean tomb and the Mycenean chariot.

This brings us to the symbol called the “horns of consecration.”  This symbol has been interpreted as sacred horns, but also as symbolic of mountain peaks, and as a reference to the upraised arms of women in worship. It is likely that the Ariadnians** identified mountains with the Mountain Mother.  This and their connection to women’s ritual gestures argues for their “female” nature. If the symbol also represents horns, the connection to to female mountains and female worshippers suggests that the horns are female.  Even if they are “only” horns, the horns of consecration probably would have been understood as female horns insofar as the main focus of  Ariadnian worship seems to have been a Goddess or Goddesses.  In any case there is no reason to automatically  assume that they are bull’s horns. horns Once again, careful re-examination of artifacts of Ariadnian** Crete reveals that common assumptions of patriarchal scholarship can and should be re-imagined.

*Usually called the Palace of Knossos.

**Usually called the Minoan Culture, after King Minos who lived several hundred years after the end of the culture in question.

Carol P. Christ has just returned from a life-transforming Goddess Pilgrimage to Crete which she led through Ariadne Institute.  The culture of ancient Crete, the last flowering of Old Europe, is one of the wellsprings of her spiritual vision, and there she participates in rituals that invoke Goddess and celebrate the connection of all beings in the web of  life.  It is not too late to join the fall pilgrimage, nor too early to sign up for spring 2014.  Carol spoke on a WATER Teleconference recently.  Her books include She Who Changes and Rebirth of the Goddess and the widely-used anthologies Womanspirit Rising and Weaving the Visions

Categories: animals, Archaeology, Art, General, Myth, Naming

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14 replies

  1. Thanks Carol, for introducing the liberating term, Ariadnians. And an excellent exploration of the bull and the goddess in art. Suggesting that the upraised arms in worship are the horns of the Goddess is perfect I think. I have read that in the Eleusinian mysteries, the arms when raised high (sometimes holding stalks of corn) signified transcendence or rebirth. Sappho says, “I don’t expect to touch the sky with these two arms,” ironically suggesting exactly the opposite, at least symbolically.


  2. Thank you again, Carol, for your keen vision. Here is to reclaiming the horns of the sacred cow!


  3. Beautiful re-imaging of the images which are clear to all with eyes to see. It makes perfect sense. Love the term Ariadnians!


  4. Great, Carol! And although I didn’t much like Barbara Lesko’s _Great Goddesses of Eqgypt_, I did appreciate her linking of the so-called Nile River Goddess’s outstretched arms with the predynastic cow goddess.


  5. Bravo Carol, my thoughts precisely after taking the pilgrimage to Crete. You are changing and bring to light the “suppressed history” of women and our contribution one word and one image at a time. Blessed Be Diane Vella


  6. May I also recommend “The Goddess and the Bull – Catalhoyuk: An Archaeological Journey to the Dawn of Civilization,” by Michael Balter. I visited Catalhoyuk while on a “goddess tour” to Turkey in 1994, just after they resumed the dig. There’s a reference to our “goddess group” on page 108!


  7. I love your take on this, but just in the interest of accuracy, I’m not sure what you said about oxen as castrated males is true. Oxen are a distinct kind of bovine, which includes males and females, the former of which may or may not be castrated Apparently castrated males were preferred for use in agricultural work because of their docility. Maybe that’s what you meant, and it’s a minor point, but every bovine should have it’s due, including those good old pre-industrial oxen.


  8. Thank you for your article, and yes female ancient ones and the depictions of female bulls are correct, it was both. As a dream-shaman elder female, i recently have been dreaming with ancient Minoan type of Bulls, in the first dreaming I captured a huge Bull and then had energy exchange with it (*not sex as in waking life, but energetic penetration as a female shaman to make the bull reveal its human self). The bull slowly transformed into a young human male around 30 years old, he told me the old man who ran this farm had abused him when he was young. I went then in the dreaming to go look for this old man and I found him in the bath, i went to look at him without being noticed and saw that he was “faceless”. I have never had a dream, dreaming or dreamtime (dream walking) with a faceless human, so i googled “faceless man in dreams”, and there were thousands of people who have experienced this, but all analyzed by a more psychological dream analysis like jungian. When one advanced beyond ‘mental body’ dreaming and its analysis, one enters the great dreaming (which is shamanic death states one must pass and not die), hence this is where i work from. This dream led me to another one for three nights in a row (private and can’t share due to my collective work with my apprentices). The next week i dreamed again, this time of two huge black Minoan type bulls in Spain and again, it lead me to some humans who are dark. I have found in my work, that the abuses of the goddess and these priestess woman’s rituals which were stolen by men 3,000 years ago with the start of Plato and the early philosophers (by this time the cultures had complexly fallen asleep to ancient goddess rituals and their origin meanings). Many of these ancient goddess rituals are still used today by the top powers of all three patriarchal religions and also by some very powerful men who are doing very dark things around the earth.



  1. Mysteria Misc. Maxima: August 16th, 2013 | Invocatio
  2. A New Glossary for Crete: The Power of Naming and the Study of History by Carol P. Christ | Feminism and Religion
  3. Horned goddesses – We Are Star Stuff
  4. The Mythology Behind the Zodiac: Taurus Myths – Jessica Davidson

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