Neil Gilman in his book Sacred Fragments writes, “Since our faculty of reason is G-d-given, since it is the quality that distinguishes us from the rest of creation, and since all human beings share that same innate faculty, what better way to establish the veracity of a religious tradition than by demonstrating its inherent rationality?” To be fair, Gilman is not the only and definitely not the first to support this position. Many theologians, especially those influenced by various Greek philosophers like Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, have said the same thing. In the Roman Catholic tradition, Thomas Aquinas is adamant that rationality is humanity’s imago dei, how we are made in the image of God – what the beginning of Bereshit (Genesis) suggests. Descartes argues, “I think therefore I am.
Patriarchy emphasizes rationality as divinely given over and above other attributes that humans share with non-human life – like instinct, growth and maturity, life and death, memory, caring, empathy, dependence, interconnectedness, relationality, and communication (in all its forms, not just speech). As a feminist, I believe these should all be equally valued because they connect humanity with plants, animals and the environment itself. As a Jew, I believe that G-d created all of it, so all of these traits are divine gifts and should be valued equally. In fact, if we follow another strain of Jewish thought already mentioned by me in a previous post, if our imago dei is our creativity, we share that as well with much of the animal and plant world. As a feminist and a Jew, I do not support patriarchy’s privileged place for rationality over other divinely given traits and abilities because we are separating humanity from the world around us, from the world we CANNOT live without.
There are also many human beings whose capacity to reason is questionable at best, non-existent at worse. They are no less human and made no less in the image of the divine as other human beings are if we are to share the premise that Adonai created us and the world around us. Likewise, the theory that only humans are rational creatures has been debunked as of late as has the idea that humans are the only beings self-conscious of their own existence. I recently read a study that argued that dogs understand to a certain extent that they are alive. The idea that elephants and other animals mourn the loss of one of their own also shows that they too understand that there is existence and there is death – a big component of our self-consciousness. Likewise, there are studies that demonstrate how trees communicate with other trees and gather information from the environment surrounding them. All animal and plant life depend on complicated ecosystems for survival even though many species of animal and plant life can also alter their environments sometimes for their benefit and often to their own and others’ destruction.
Many humans do not want to see themselves as part of the world, at least not to the extent that they really are linked in the cycles of life and death as the rest of the earth and the universe is. The world is interconnected, inter-meshed, tangled and often messy; nevertheless it is the place in which we live. It is also an exciting, renewing and sustaining environment if we were all to give it more credit for what it is and how it was created by the Holy One to live, to sustain life and most importantly to flourish – to live well.
Another effect of patriarchy’s over-valuing of our rational capacity is the devaluation our bodies and other material things like plant and animal life that also inhabit the earth. This has had detrimental effects: attempts to control the world rationally have destroyed many species and environments. Humans, in our rational, heady selves, often become greedy, domineering, selfish, ignorant, materialistic and misogynistic because we value what is related to the mind over what is related to the body. The patriarchal mind-body split of the Western philosophical tradition continues to thrive when we equate rationality with divinity over and above our other G-d-given characteristics. We have bodies too because Adonai created them. They are as much divinely given as our rational capacity. Therefore, when we can move out of our heads and live more fully with our whole bodies – as embodied beings – life is better. We can see our interconnections more, value the contributions of all life to the beauty and wonder of creation and understand that we, while significantly responsible for our use of the world around us, are only one part of an extremely complex, beautiful and self-sufficient world.
Society is not there yet however and there is a lot of pressure from patriarchy to continue this over-valuation of rationality. I have been thinking of ways in my Jewish spiritual practice to keep the feminist concepts of embodiedness and connection on the forefront of my thoughts and actions. With this in mind, I have begun to understand wearing a kippah, or yarmulke, in a different way. I cover my head in the more traditional sense to remind me that my entire life involves my relationship with and service to G-d, yet the kippah for me as feminist practice is also a daily reminder of the need to be an embodied creature in the presence of G-d’s creation as well. I am a part of creation, not above it, not separate from it. I hope that wearing a kippah reminds me of importance of right, just and loving behavior toward creation and dedicated service to G-d, the One who birthed the world into being, the Creator, Mother of all creation who is immanently present in creation as the Shekhinah.
At the same time, I also wear a kippah as a transgressive, subversive and queer feminist practice hoping to destabilize some of the very gendered Jewish practices. Since I believe gender identity to be fluid and myself as transgender in many ways, for me, it is important to wear not claiming the kippah as part of women’s clothing even though many other feminists do. I would rather we, as a community, did more work around strict gender roles in family life, dress and religious practice. (a topic for a subsequent post)
To conclude, as physical beings, I suggest we also need physical, material reminders of our position in creation and duty to it and to G-d. When one is conscience of G-d’s role in creation and all the ways in which humans are part of that creation rather than separate or distinct from it, working at a soup kitchen, planting a tree or petting a cat has added significance. We need to live more embodied lives because by doing so we will create a better world. We will be more compassionate, just, loving and humane when we interact with the world around us as if we were always interacting with G-d as well. As the prophet Micah says, “…what does the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness, and to walk humbly with your G-d.” The kippah is my feminist and subversive reminder to do just that.