carol-christMary, Mary, quite contrary, how does your garden grow? With silver bells and cockle shells, and pretty little maids all in a row.

From the beginning of horticulture about 8000 BCE or earlier to the present day, weeding has been women’s work. Women, who were the gatherers and preparers of food in traditional nomadic societies, no doubt were the first to discover that seeds dropped at a campsite one year sometimes sprung up as plants the next year. When this discovery was systematized, agriculture was invented, and human beings began to settle down in the first villages and towns.

In the early days of horticulture (the name for the earliest stage of agriculture before the plow was developed), the cycles of planting and harvest and all the stages in between were understood to have been given to mothers by the Great Mother, the Source of Life.  The secrets of planting, seed collection, harvest, and food preparation and preservation were all perceived to be “mysteries” connected to the ongoing cycles of birth, death, and regeneration in the universe.

My grandmother Lena Marie Searing who was born on a farm in Michigan must have learned agricultural secrets from her mother, for she not only created a beautiful garden, she also farmed an orchard and preserved its fruits in glass jars that lined her pantry.  It was she who taught me and my brothers and cousins to love nature.  My mother learned to garden from her mother, but she did not harvest food crops. I think of both of them whenever I work in my garden.

The past few days I have been weeding my garden after heavy rains that left the soil clumpy and moist.  I have weeded before, but I have never enjoyed it so much.  My garden has matured over the past seven years, and now the weeds are more “under control.”  There aren’t so many of them, and as I have now been weeding them out over the years, their roots are shallow.

As I slide a trowel into the earth the weeds lift up and with my fingers I gently pull the plants with their roots from the soil.  The weeds are familiar, though I don’t know all of their names. The “sticky weed” has many tough roots, the clover has many fine ones—both are hard to eradicate. Other weeds are easy to pull up and do not reappear again until the next year.

wild chamomile blooming among "weeds"
wild chamomile blooming among “weeds”

I am discovering that weeding is a delicate process. Sometimes the roots of plants I want in the garden are entangled with those of the weeds. I work carefully choosing the ones to save and the ones to discard.** I leave poppies, chamomile, yellow daisies, and marigolds where I find them, as I consider them to be wildflowers that will provide beauty in my garden when they bloom in spring. I also take care to “keep the soil in good heart” by not discarding too much of it along with the weeds.

As I weed, I think of the women in my village who harvest greens from the fields, feeling certain that some of the weeds I discard are edible.  I marvel at all of the knowledge women have shared and passed down over the past 10,000 years and more, as I realize how little of it I know. My suspicion that some of my weeds could be food is validated when a friend and I order boiled “greens from the mountains” for lunch at a local taverna and are served one of the plants I had thrown into the garbage can.

As I weed, I am reminded of an essay called “Keeping the Soil in Good Heart: Women Weeders, the Environment, and Ecofeminism” by Candice Bradley which was published in Karen J. Warren’s EcofeminismBradley writes that weeding is women’s work in almost all cultures.  As I work, I understand that this is so because weeding is delicate work that requires concentration and patience and that must be repeated. Bradley says that in many cultures men disparage weeding as they disparage housework—not considering either to be “real” work.

Horticulture is the most environmentally friendly form of farming, according to Bradley, because it does the least harm to the soil, and because the weeds that are not eaten are burned or composted and turned back into the earth to replenish it.

While weeding by hand has been considered work for women and children, men have generally controlled the plow and its recent successor, the tractor. However, as Bradly states, the plow and the tractor do not eliminate the need for hand-weeding.  In many cases they encourage the weeds to regenerate. Women and children still weed.

The chemical gardening and farming industry (“round it up”) is based on the premise that weeds can and must be eradicated. Rachel Carson warned us of the danger this approach to agriculture presents to human and all other forms of life.  A by-product of chemical agriculture is that the careful work of women weeders is further discounted.

I do not use chemicals or pesticides in my garden, and I will be out there weeding on a regular basis in the next months.  As I put my hands in the earth, I will think of all the women before me who have weeded and planted, weeded and harvested, and weeded again. Blessed be.

*The title of this essay is an homage to Elizabeth Wayland Barber’s Women’s Work: The First 20,000 Years which discusses and celebrates women and weaving.

**I am aware that no plant was born a “weed” and that the designation of some plants as weeds is a by-product of human digestive systems, human taste, agriculture, and the creation of gardens for the celebration of beauty.

Carol P. Christ created a newly released new website for the Goddess Pilgrimage to Crete which she leads through Ariadne Institute.  Early bird special for the spring pilgrimage available until February 15.  Carol can be heard on a WATER Teleconference.  Carol’s books include She Who Changes and Rebirth of the Goddess and the widely-used anthologies Womanspirit Rising and Weaving the Visions

Author: Carol P. Christ

Carol P. Christ is a leading feminist historian of religion and theologian who leads the Goddess Pilgrimage to Crete, a life transforming tour for women. www.goddessariadne.org

11 thoughts on “WOMEN AND WEEDING, THE FIRST 10,000 YEARS* by Carol P. Christ”

  1. Loved reading this Carol. Just as I love weeding too. I have a lovely little book by Ark Redwood – the head gardener of Chalice Wells Gardens in Glastonbury called ‘The Art of Mindful Gardening’, there are some great gardening meditations in there – many for weeding. I believe that the weeds that grow naturally around us contain the nutrients and minerals we need for our bodies. I often eat weeds – because they are not really weeds as you say, they are a plant full of goodies. I love to serve up my weed and lettuce salads at barbecues! I also make a weed tonic to pour on my vegies, it makes a great fertiliser as it is full of trace elements. I am aware that culturally and historically it was women’s and children’s work to weed – I am fortunate to have a husband who now finds joy in weeding. It took a bit to train him that it was OK to have weeds, it’s not a battle that needs to be won – learn to live with them and enjoy pulling them out as it is very meditative and really does connect you with mother earth. I am preparing my garden beds for Autumn – my favourite gardening season – weed, manure, mulch, rest; ready to plant. xxx


  2. How profound and beautiful in your life, that weeding and planting in the garden, Carol!! Very recently, I was reading a bio on Georgia O’Keeffe, and it mentioned that her home in New Mexico (which she apparently designed herself) included a walled garden, and there she spent much time, planting and weeding. When you look at her flower paintings, of course, she must have been a gardener, but that delightful fact just never occurred to me before for whatever reason.


  3. My gardens are under a foot and a half of snow. Your post wakens the longing to have my hands in earth even as the waxing sun is stirring roots and seeds as they rest.


  4. Brava! And you know what they say–a weed is an orphan that hasn’t found its proper home yet. Or something like that. I have a book called On Guerrilla Gardening by Richard Reynolds, which is about creating and caring for little gardens in public spaces. Apparently people are doing guerrilla gardening all over the world. Good for them!


  5. Dear Karolina, I am happy to be receiving your Monday blogs. My garden is on my mind throughout the year even as I watch it during the bare bones of winter. I can now see it more clearly and imagine the next path I will create that may bring an unexpected view of a bench or stacked stones or a distant swing. I am always looking to create the best environment for birds and wildlife which means the occasional browsing of deer or groundhogs and the presence of skunks, possums, chipmunks, etc. The new Ariadne website looks great! Congratulations on figuring out how to create it. Love, Jana


  6. As a child I spent a great deal of time with my beloved grandmother in a rural area. Even in short Wisconsin summers she grew a full vegetable garden and many flower gardens. Weeding was a daily activity. At the time I had no words for what happened as I performed this task. It was quieting and rhythmatic. And I still know that experience and attain it through other practices.

    I now have a small herb window garden and grow vertically on a balcony. Texas is much more hospitable to a long growing season. Yes, it is a movement of revolution to grow your own food. And I happily joined. Thank you.


  7. Your description of your mother and grandmother’s gardens reminded me very much of my own. My grandmother kept her children alive with the huge vegetable garden she tended. And my mother, after climbing into the middle class, grew 100s of kinds of irises and other flowers as well. I’m also reminded of Alice Walker’s “In Search of our Mothers’ Gardens,” where she talks about the creation of beauty that her mother found in her flower garden, despite the poverty in her life. It helps to imagine the life of our gardent ready to sprout under the feet of snow here in Wisconsin.


  8. Thanks to all of you who commented. I hope we will all be thinking of the traditions we are carrying on as we weed our gardens and plant our pretty little maids all in a row!


Please familiarize yourself with our Comment Policy before posting.

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this: